Genital warts (condyloma acuminate) are among the most widespread sexually acquired diseases.
The peak incidence of the disease is between the ages of 20 and 40. Worldwide, the number of new cases is continuously increasing. Therapy of choice for singular condylomas is podophyllotoxin. Seven randomized controlled trials have shown that the use of podophyllotoxin significantly reduces the number and infestation area of condylomas and significantly increases the complete healing rate.1
Local glucocorticoid therapy for skin diseases:
Prednisolone in topical application: The anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects of corticosteroids can treat a variety of dermatologic conditions.2 Skin conditions that respond to topical glucocorticoid therapy include: acute, subacute, and chronic eczema of various types (contact, seborrheic, anal, and perigenital), dermatitis, pruritus, erythema exsudativum multiforme, first-degree scalds and burns, or sunburn.3
Calcineurin inhibitors provide an alternative treatment for atopic eczema. However, if neither contraindications nor side effects are present, modern topical steroids remain the agents of choice.2
The prevalence of psoriasis in Western industrialized nations is 1.5 – 2%. Approximately 80% have psoriasis vulgaris. In more than 90% of the patients it comes to a chronic course. Since the 1970s, photochemotherapy in the form of combined application of photosensitizing psoralens with subsequent whole or partial body irradiation using UVA light has been scientifically established. Application is oral as systemic PUVA therapy or local in the form of bath or cream PUVA.4
This contagious skin disease is characterized by severe itching (especially at night under warm bed covers) and multilayered clinical manifestations (red, itchy “spots and whimpers,” some scaly-crusty) at typical sites (e.g., interfinger spaces, wrists, groin region, elbows, area around nipples, genital area, palms and soles of feet in young children).
Occurrence and transmission
Scabies occurs worldwide and affects individuals of all ages. It is estimated that approximately 300 million people worldwide are infected with the scabies mite, but there are no frequency figures for individual countries. These vary according to climate, population density, living conditions and hygienic conditions. In German-speaking countries, a sharp increase in scabies cases has been recorded in recent years.5,6,7
Scabies is more likely to occur in populations living together in close quarters, where direct skin-to-skin contact for a minimum of several minutes is common (e.g., members of a family or shared apartment, sexual partners, nursery schools, care facilities for the disabled and elderly, hospitals, prisons, homeless asylums, etc.).8 Indirect transmission may occur via shared bedding or clothing.9 Typically, infection does not occur from brief contacts such as handshakes or via inanimate objects.5
Scabies is a parasitic skin disease and is caused by the scabies mite Sarcoptes scabiei. Female scabies mites grow to 0.3-0.5 mm in size (just visible as a dot to the human eye), while male mites grow to 0.21-0.29 mm. Female scabies mites can penetrate the skin after fertilization. In the stratum corneum, the uppermost layer of the epidermis, female scabies mites dig tunnel-shaped tunnels in which they lay eggs and excrete fecal pads, moving forward about 0.5-5 mm per day.8 The eggs hatch into larvae after 2-3 days, which swarm out to the surface of the skin and develop into so-called nymphs, which mature into sexually active mites after about 2-3 weeks.5 This leads to the unpleasant symptoms of scabies already described.
Medicinal scabies therapy can be performed externally by means of topical medicines in the form of creams, or, in certain cases, systemically with tablets. Combination therapy of topical and systemic medicines is also possible. Your physician will select the therapy individually for you on the basis of your symptoms according to the current therapy recommendations for your age group and will check the success of the therapy.9,10
In addition, follow general hygiene measures to clean your body, clothes, bedding, towels, and other items with prolonged body contact (e.g., stuffed animals, blood pressure cuff, etc.), and keep fingernails short and clean.9,11
1 AWMF guideline: http://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/081-008_S1_Anale_Feigwarzen_08-2008_07-2012.pdf (accessed: 6.11.2013).
2 Weber M & Lautenschlager S. Dermatological therapy: use of topical steroids. Switzerland. Med. forum 2006; 6: 341-348.
3 SmPC Kühlpredinon-Salbe, Gerot Lannach. Date of Information: January 2012.
4 AWMF guideline: http://www.awmf.org/uploads/tx_szleitlinien/013-001l_S3_Psoriasis_vulgaris_Therapie_01.pdf (accessed: 6.11.2013).
5 Das Land Steiermark. Jahresbericht zum Steirischen Seuchenplan 2018, 16. Ausgabe. Im Auftrag der Steiermärkischen Landesregierung Abteilung 8: Gesundheit, Pflege und Wissenschaft. Hrsg. Hofrat Dr. Odo Feenstra. Graz, March 2019. Franz F Reinthaler unter Mitarbeit von Gebhard Feierl und Marianne Wassermann-Neuhold.
6 Kämmerer E. Medizinreport: Skabies. Erfahrungen aus der Praxis. Deutsches Ärzteblatt Jg 115, Heft 15, 13.04.2018.
7 Österreichische Gesellschaft für Sexually Transmitted Diseaseses und dermatologische Mikrobiologie. Skabies-Informationsblätter für Patienten. ©ÖGSTD http://www.oegstd.at/web/index.php/skabies-informationsblaetter (accessed: 10.01.2022)
8 Robert Koch Institut. RKI-Ratgeber Skabies (Krätze). https://www.rki.de/DE/Content/Infekt/EpidBull/Merkblaetter/Ratgeber_Skabies.html (accessed: 10.01.2022)
9 Österreichische Gesellschaft für Sexually Transmitted Diseaseses und dermatologische Mikrobiologie. Skabies-Informationsblätter für Patienten. ©ÖGSTD http://www.oegstd.at/web/index.php/skabies-informationsblaetter (accessed: 10.01.2022)
10 Oberösterreich. Skabies – Ärzteinformationsblatt Beilage 4 – Status of Information: March 2021
11 Package leaflet Ivergelan®-Tabletten.