Hypertension is considered the leading risk factor for cardio- and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality worldwide.
It is estimated that 2/3 of all strokes and 47% of ischemic heart disease (deficient blood flow to the heart) are due to elevated blood pressure and could be prevented by adequate treatment. Arterial hypertension is responsible for 14% of premature deaths and 6% of disability. According to epidemiological studies, approximately ¼ of the adult population worldwide is hypertensive. Cardiovascular risk increases as blood pressure rises, with systolic blood pressure rising steadily until about 80 years of age, while diastolic blood pressure rises until 50 years of age, and then declines.1 Numerous classes of agents with different targets are available to achieve target blood pressure in order to achieve therapeutic goals in each patient individually.
|Category||Systolic / Diastolic (mmHg)|
|optimal||< 120 / < 80|
|normal||120-129 / 80-84|
|normal blood pressure||130–139 / 85–89|
|hypertension grade 1||140–159 / 90–99|
|hypertension grade 2||160–179 / 100–109|
|hypertension grade 3||> 180 / 110|
Angina pectoris (chest tightness) is the leading symptom of coronary artery disease, which is the consequence of a chronic inflammatory process due to cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. male gender, nicotine abuse, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia) and family history. Stable angina pectoris is an expression of high-grade coronary stenosis and must be distinguished from unstable angina pectoris and myocardial infarction. Therapy is aimed to treat the underlying disease (vasoprotective therapy) and to alleviate the symptoms. Antianginal therapy consists of nitrates, beta-blockers, or long-acting calcium antagonists, alone or in combination.2
1 Weber , T. et al. Austrian blood pressure consensus 2019. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2019;131[Suppl 6]:S489-S590.
2 Mügge A. Stable angina. Leading symptoms, diagnosis and therapy. Ars Medici, 2009, 12: 491-6.